Special Instruction: To read these files you will require "PDF Reader Software". If you don't have it, please download this from the link has given here: "FREE. To read these files you will require "PDF Reader Software". If you don't have it, please download this from the link has given here. Free Pdf Reader. This Surah is called Nun as well as Al-Qalam, the words with which it begins. This Surah has 52 verses and resides between pages to in the Quran.
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Back to Quran , Islam , or Quran Surah pages. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Mushaf — Surah Al-Qalam — Verses 1 to Mushaf — Surah Al-Qalam — Verses 17 to Mushaf — Surah Al-Qalam — Verses 43 to Click here to read more Islamic stories from the Quran and get access to best Dua books in these publications.
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Get the Quranic Healing Book. Best Dua Book: Allah has used, at forty-two places, different verbs of the root word 'aqr, denoting the fact that those who use their intellect properly will grasp the truth and one should use one's intellect. We also find that the word 'Hikmat' or similar words are used at eighteen places.
All prophets were granted wisdom. In both the verses, the Arabic word al- Hukm is used to mean wisdom. The prophet Muhammad was also granted wisdom by Allah as He says, "It is He Who has sent amongst the unlettered a Messenger from among themselves to rehearse to them His Signs, to purify them, and to instruct them in the Book and Wisdom, although they had been, before, in meinfest error".
The Prophet was guided by Allah to call people by the way of wisdom.
From the above citations of the Quran, it is quite clear that the Quran emphasizes the acquisition of knowledge which can be attained through various sources comprising of the testimony of both types, the divine and the personal, the personal one of the Prophet who was sent to impart to the people the knowledge of the Book and Hikmah wisdom.
Wisdom, again, to acquire the knowledge of the world through various signs that God concealed in the earth and the skies, and perception, reason, experience and intuition. But all these sources that man is blessed with must be used in the right direction for the pursuit of path of righteousness. The Quran particularly speaks of three categories of knowledge acquired through different sources, each of them having its own sphere and domain.
They are the empirical knowledge, the rational knowledge and the intuitive knowledge. To substantiate our claim, we mention here the verses relevant to each.
Knowledge of future, of course, is a living issue in philosophy, sometimes negating and sometimes affirming the possibility of its acquisition.
An Introduction to Ilm al-Kalam
But the Quran unequivocally admits the possibility of its attainment posing God as being Alim-al-ghaib the Knower of the unseen , having power to impart as much knowledge of future as He desires. At another place He says, "Of knowledge it is only a little that is communicated to you O, men.
Besides, the Quran is the first stylistic book in the Arabic language. It is the best model of eloquence and rhetoric, and it has been stated that the Quran is the primary source of the rehgious and the worldly sciences.
The Arabic grammar which existed, at most, in a dormant state was later compiled in accordance with the eschatology of Quranic language. Lexicography also started with the word-morphism of the Quran. Needless to say, before the Quran there were three other divine revelations known to mankind but none of them had the impact which the Quran did in the rapid growth of various sciences of positive and normative nature.
Although, the Arabic language was known for its tapestry even before the advent of Islam,, particularly rich in poetry, yet it was in its fonnative state, and rules were emerging for its guidance and foundation. The Quran put on them a seal of authority and determined its semantics. The style of the Quran is unique in its nature. It includes the elements of both these forms and has a versified structure and is therefore commonly known as the Quranic verses, having the structure of 'saja' and rhythm of poetry.
The grandeur and the gorgeousness of its style baffled the Arabs of its time and forced them to believe it to be the work of God and not the creation of the Prophet. The Quran clearly asserts that the man chosen as the prophet was a completely unlettered person and was one from the masses. This fact was emphasized to clarify that such a perfect creation was not possible by the man who knew even no letters. Many of them, however, took it as a challenge to copy the verses of the Quraan in its unique style but had to bear the agony of failure and distress and finally had to admit it as the work of God which man, by no means, could copy.
The Quran itself threw the challenge to the Arabs to copy even its smallest sura, "Or do they say, 'he forged it'? Say, bring then a sura like unto it, and call to your aid anyone you can, besides Allah, if it be ye speak the truth," and it was, as the Prophet instructed, hung on the wall of the Ka'aba for quite a long time and many noted Arabs, who were proud of their language and style tried their best to compose such verse but had to acknowledge that "it is not the work of man".
The Muslims rightly claim that the Quran includes, in its content, the signs and symbols related to all walks of life and thus covers the various sciences of different nature acknowledging man as their nucleus.
Thus, before consulting any other source, the Quran served them as the primary source for the growth of knowledge.
The earhest problems of philosophy which lead to the origin of Ilm-al-kalm are definitely rooted in the Quran itself The Arabs were fully cognizant of their language. They understood the subtleties and intricacies of the language and were able to interpret the verses of the Quran.
In the verses clear in meaning, there is no room for interpretation but the verses ambiguous in nature need interpretation posing challenge to the human wisdom and intellect. Such verses became more important for the non- believers. And they, more often than never offered ridiculous interpretations which in no way could be acceptable to the Muslims.
The delusion led to the controversies and debates in which the Muslims had to involve themselves, perhaps, even against their will. The Quran itself anticipates such controversies and warns the believers not to indulge in them. In the beginning, it was avoided for long, but notwithstanding the warning of the Quran, Muslims could not abstain from participating in these controversies.
The ambiguous verses were pondered over and interpreted to answer the harsh and unfounded criticism of the non- behevers, including the Christians, the Jews and the infidels. One of the discussions of the Quran was regarded its being a miracle. Many scholars supported the claim and others denied it.
The Quran, however, is treated as one of the miracles of the Prophet by most of the scholars and common MusHms. Those who did not believe in its miraculous nature, denied the occurrence of all miracles which again led to another controversy about miracles and their occurrence.
The Quran, thus, in brief, is an important factor in the development of many religious and worldly sciences. It developed the interest in philology, phonetics and semantics, grammar and lexicography, rhetoric and dialectics, hermeonatics and many auxiliary sciences, dealing with and contributing to their growth. Thus one may not agree with the orientalists who erroneously search out the source for the origin of these sciences in Greek philosophy. The Quranic discourse has introduced us to many philosophical problems regarding the essence and attributes of God, justice, freedom of will and those concerning the articles of faith.
The roots of all these questions leading to latter philosophical discourse lie in the Quran itself and we need not look for the sources elsewhere.
Thus the emphasis on knowledge, contemplation in the issues related to the world and beyond, human fate and its implications have been the source of many philosophical inquiries which resulted in the emergence of Ilm-al-kalam. The Tradition Next to the Quran are the Traditions of the Prophet which include his sayings, doings and confirmations representing three categories: It is believed that the Traditions of the Prohet are the application of the Quran in the personal and the social life of man.
The Quran, verily confirms the Tradition, especially his sayings, as being a revelation too: This makes clear that the Tradition, like the Quran, emphasizes the acquisition of knowledge and has served as a cause of inspiration for the seekers since the advent of Islam.
The Traditions that substantiate our contention are given below: He blesses him with the knowledge of the religion". From these Traditions one can easily conclude that Islam has encouraged Muslims to acquire knowledge.
A Muslim whose main target is Paradise and salvation from hell is inspired in the way that if he acquires knowledge his way to Paradise becomes easier and if he conceals knowledge he may be punished in Hell.
Here in the Traditions, we see that the word ilm knowledge has been used in its general form and it is not true for anyone to confine it within any particular religion or theology. Rather, this knowledge covers all types of knowledge viz.
We have seen in the preceding lines that the Quran and the Tradition both have emphasized the acquisition of knowledge to a great deal, which consequently led to growth of a rational attitude, at least in respect of the understanding of the world and in defense of the faith.
This emphasis on knowledge directed the Muslim intelligentsia to contemplate over the issues which confronted them in their intellectual pursuit and to comprehend the philosophical insight of the other communities. The Arabs were quite receptive and penetrative.
The Prophet through the Quran and the Tradition did not only correct their faith but also guided them to use their talents, prudence and sagacity. Thus it can be safely asserted that the Mushms could rely on their own resources for the growth of knowledge instead of groping them in other houses. The Syrians and the Iranians, later on, were treated as Islamic, for after the conquests of these countries, they embraced Islam as their religion and there emerged a mixed culture which transformed the face of Islam by admitting some of their local ancestral tradition.
Before the Muslims conquered these countries, they practised either Christianity, Judaism or Manichaeanism. Besides, they also learned Greek philosophy, theology and its methodology. There were various important centers of. When they fell to the Muslim militia, the Muslim intelligentsia interacted with their scholars who created in them a fondness and fascination for Greek philosophy and science.
They fell to this attraction for the reason that their religion Islam encouraged them to acquire knowledge from all quarters. Through this interaction, Islamic philosophy was also influenced.
Here we will try to ascertain the sources and their influences, firstly, of Greek and, thereafter, of Persia and India Greek Sources and Influences According to the author of 'Kashfiizzunun' there were five masters in Greece who had influenced muslim intelligentsia most, namely Bandqlese Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
It describes him to have lived in the days of the Prophet David. He visited Syria to learn medicine and other sciences from Luqman the great hakeem. Upon his return to Greece, he wrote a book which apparently denied the life hereafter. Due to this confusion many of the believers dissociated themselves from him. Jalal-al-Din al- Qifti, the writer of 'Akhbar-al-Hukama' describes to have seen this book in the library of Jerusalem but denies that it contains any such assertion leading to the denial of the life-hereafter.
The book, however, influenced the Batiniyah community in the formation of its faith. A noted Batini, Mohd. Abdulah b. Maisera , A. Due to his beliefs in Bandqlese's philosophy he had to resort to nomadic life to find reftige for himself He was charged with heresy and people dissociated themselves from him.
He retired into mystic life where he had had some impact, but it was wiped off after his heretic views became known. During his stay in Iraq he met some M'utazila dialecticians who showed keenness in his philosophical resolutions. It is held that Bandqlese was the first to believe in the Attributes and Essence being identical with each other. God is, according to him.
Omnipotent, Omniscient and Mercifiil as to His Being. Abul-Hudhail al-Basari, a representative of M'utazilah agreed to his views. Pythagoras was another important Greek philosopher who had a notable influence on Muslim schools and scholars, as mentioned in 'Tabaqa1-ul-0mam' and 'Akhbarul Hukama'. He learned geometry and medicine from Egyptian scholars.
Later on, he himself propounded number-theory and also made a valuable contribution in the field of geometry.
According to 'Tabaqatul Atibba' he was the first to use the word 'philosophy' for this kind of knowledge. This work cited above presents detailed accounts of his life and work based on the following two books: He believed in the mortality of souls and held that the virtuous souls will enjoy reward in the hereafter in the world of souls. Like his predecessor he also influenced some Muslim communities like Batiniyah and individual philosophers belonging to the group of Brethren of purity.
The Muslim philosophers were also influenced by Socrates who also carried a great deal of influence on Muslim thinkers. He was a disciple of Pythagoras and more inclined to divine philosophy. Socrates was better known for his method of dialectics.
He wrote no book, yet gained world-reputation. He laid emphasis on discourse involving thesis and anti-thesis to reach a synthesis. He believed in monotheism and lived a life of asceticism. His monotheistic views confronted Greek Mythology which advocated polytheism. Plato was one of the most important Greek philosophers, influenced the Muslim scholars to the greatest extent.
At first glance, the mosque seems to be something out of a story from the Arabian Nights. It combines elements from Moorish Islamic architecture with the exoticism of tales from the Arabian Nights.
It is extravagant and ornate and still captures the imagination of visitors with its east- ern charm. The interior is also oriental in style with a floor of marble mosaics.
Both sides of the building are adorned with minarets.
The ceiling is decorated with stucco work and the cornice is supported by eight pilasters.Do they not then think deeply in the Quran or are their hearts locked up from understanding it?
Many classical Persian texts were translated into Arabic and most of them were on morals, for morality was the main concern of the Persians of those days. The Abbasides expressed their keeimess and provided patronage to these scholars.
Wisdom, again, to acquire the knowledge of the world through various signs that God concealed in the earth and the skies, and perception, reason, experience and intuition. Javed Ahmad Ghamidi born , a Pakistani Muslim theologian , Quran scholar, exegete, and educationist.
Thus, kalam means theology in contradistinction to Fiqh, which means juris prudence. After the conquest of these lands, the Greek language, literature and philosophy also fascinated the Muslims. It was for this reason that the Christians were encouraged in the Muslim empires to take up the task of translation of these books. In the second stage it became rationalistic in the hands of the Mu'tazilites, but in its final stage it was reduced to mere scholasticism aiming at a reconciliation between reason and revelation on the basis of reasoning that is the work of the Ash'rities.
Wisdom, again, to acquire the knowledge of the world through various signs that God concealed in the earth and the skies, and perception, reason, experience and intuition.